Solubility & Solvation

In one of our University Laboratory Studies at 4D LABS, Simon Fraser University, a $75M Core Facility for Advanced Materials Research and Characterization, we showed that <33 treated water increases the solubility of calcium minerals.

<33 treatment changes how water makes & breaks bonds when solvating dissolved ions & molecules.

The more heat evolved, the harder it is for water to retain important ions & electrolytes such as calcium.

All studies were carried out under the supervision of Dr. Neil Branda, Professor of Chemistry and Tier I Canada Research Chair in Materials Science (emeritus) and were performed with utmost care and adhering to the best possible scientific practices.

Using microcalorimetry, it was demonstrated that <33 Technology reduces the heat (less negative enthalpy) of solvation (the making and breaking on bonds) of calcium carbonate in water. Because the solvation of calcium carbonate is exothermic (produces heat), the more negative the enthalpy the harder it is for water to retain this important ion & electrolyte in solution.

<33 conditioning changes the thermodynamics of solvation

<33 reduces the heat evolved & helps keep electrolytes in solution

<33 results in less negative enthalpy